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Isnin, November 17, 2008

SPM 2008

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Selasa, November 04, 2008

Mekka is the center of the earth

Mekka is the center of the earth

Dr. Salih Muhammad Awadh

Iraq , Baghdad university , faculty of science ,

Geology Dept

Translated by : Magdy Abd Al-Shafy

The layers of the earth

In this short study , when contemplating about the miracles of God in this universe , I will show the miracles in the creation of the earth though many people go unmindful of them . God says in the Holy Quran what means " And in the earth are portents for those whose faith is sure " (Al-Zaryat :20) According to seismology , the earth , from the surface to its center , is composed of three layers and these with the secondary ones form seven layers ( figure 1) , God refers to this wel-established fact in the Holy Quran , God says in the Holy Quran in this regard what means ( Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know that Allah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge ." (56:12)

These layers are:

1-The earth Crust

It the solid part that we live on , it varies in thickness , the maximum thickness is under the mountain while thickness is relatively smaller under oceans ; the earth crust can be scientifically categorized into two parts :

(a) The continental crust :

It is a rocky mass varying in thickness , the rate of thickness varies between 30Km-40Km in the continental areas while it reaches 70km under mountains

(b) The oceanic layer : it is a rocky structure encompassing the earth under oceans and the crust ; it is not harmonious structure with relatively thickness of 6km

The mantle : it is higher in dense than all the masses of the crust , it is complex in structure ; because of the high temperature and pressure , it is semi-rigid , it is the source of magma , it can be divided into three parts

(a)The upper mantle which goes deep to a depth of 400km under the crust .

(b) The transformation zone which extends from 400km to 1000km

© The lower mantle which extends from 1000 km to 2900km

3-The core of the earth , it is mainly composed of iron and Nickel and it can be divided into layers

a) The outer core which is in a liquid state , it extends from a depth of 2900km to 5080km

(b) The interior core : it is a rigid substance and it extends from a depth of

5080 to 6371 , it is believed that the internal core is the centre of the earth .

The rock layer of the earth on which we live has never been one mass but it is composed of what scientifically known as ( plates ) . God refers to this fact in the Holy Quran , ( And in the Earth are neighboring tracts, vineyards and ploughed lands, and date palms, like and unlike, which are watered with one water. And We have made some of them to excel others in fruit. Lo! herein verily are portents for people who have sense . ) (13-4)

These adjacent plates , that are mentioned in the Holy Quran , are that which are scientifically approved ( figure 2) , this is , now , the most well-established and the most scientifically well-supported fact , it is taught everywhere in the world universities , Geology department . The most well-known earth plates are :

1. Eurasian plate covering Asia and Europe

2.African plate covering Africa

3.The Arabian plate

4.Antarctic plate covering Antarctic

5. Australian plate, covering Australia (fused with Indian plate between 50 and 55 million years ago)

6. North American Plate covering North America and north-east Siberia

7. South American plate covering South America

8. Pacific Plate covering the Pacific Plate

9. The Indian Plate

10. The Caribbean plate

11. The Philippine plate

12. Scotia

Figure (1) The scientifically-known plates nowadays ( mentioned in the Holy Quran as the neighboring plates

The plates motion

the earth plates relatively moves slowly and constantly , it can't be seen directly but can be recoded with highly advanced technology ; (1M a year was reported by this technology as regard the movement of one of these plates)and can be experienced during earthquakes .

There are three main kinds of motions as regard the plate movement :

Convergent movement , divergent movement and transform movement, in the divergent movement , two adjacent plate move in the opposite directions moving away from each other and this often happens in mid-floor of seas and oceans causing dint or protuberance and this result in the gushing out of the magma under sea water , being molten and with high pressure , it cause large mass of water to evaporate ; the Holy Quran has referred to this scientific fact in the following verse (And by the sea set on fire ) (81:6)

Ocean floor rift typifies a certain kind of earthquakes followed by magma out-break . This magma is composed of complex substance higher in density than the rocks of the crust , scientific studies have proved that density of the upper mantle is much higher in density than that of the earth crust (0.4gramme/ cm3 ) , the more we go down , the more differences in density . The Holy Quran refers to this scientific fact ( When Earth is shaken with her (final) earthquake and Earth yieldeth up her burdens(99:1-2)

These magma forms what is now known as the volcanic mountains which are termed as mid-ocean ridges, which rise over the oceans and seas water forming islands , the earthquake and volcanoes co-occurrence can be illustrated in (figure -3) the convergence movement means that two adjacent plate approach each other with result that they collide with each other , as they go on colliding ,one of them or both slidedown as far as 100Km with the result that they have their structure changed turning into semi-molten state because of the high temperature - this process typifies the corroding

figure 2) the locations where the last recorded quakes took place in the last century dotted in black , these co-occur the locations of opening the mid-oceans (oceans colored blue) and also represent the locations of crust plates collisions ( colored green) taken from (Spencer ,2003)

(Of the ends of the plates or the ends of the earth as the Holy Quran depicts , this fact is mentioned in the Holy Quran in the following two Holy verses . God says in the Holy Quran in this regard what means ( See they not how We visit the land, reducing it of its outlying parts? (When) Allah doometh there is none that can postpone His doom, and He is swift at reckoning. " (13:41)

Also God says also in the Holy Quran what means "Nay, but We gave these and their fathers ease until life grew long for them. See they not how we visit the land, reducing it of its outlying parts? Can they then be the victors? " (21:44)

A plate might slide over the other forming structural mountains , these moves with the plates; these means that these mountains moves and that what the Holy Quran refers to , God says in the Holy Quran what means ( And when the hills are moved) (81:3)

Also God says in the Holy Quran what means " Had it been possible for a Lecture to cause the mountains to move, or the earth to be torn asunder, or the dead to speak, (this Quran would have done so). Nay, but Allah's is the whole command. Do not those who believe know that, had Allah willed, He could have guided all mankind? As for those who disbelieve, disaster ceaseth not to strike them because of what they do, or it dwelleth near their home until the threat of Allah come to pass. Lo! Allah faileth not to keep the tryst."

Also God says in the Holy Quran what means "And (bethink you of) the Day when We remove the hills and ye see the earth emerging, and We gather them together so as to leave not one of them behind.(18:47)

Earth quakes and volcanoes eruptions accompany the collision of the plates , the same thing happens in the transform movement which cause fissures as long as it goes lengthwise ; this is also a proof that plates are in continuous motion since they were first formed up till now .